Sources had earlier told ESPN that Van Dijk could be hit with an additional one-game suspension following his dismissal.
Van Dijk protested the decision and remained on the pitch while the incident was reviewed by the VAR team.
But once the red card was confirmed and upheld by VAR, Van Dijk reacted angrily to the decision and was seen to verbally complain to fourth official Stuart Attwell as he headed towards the players' tunnel at St James' Park.
The FA confirmed Tuesday that Van Dijk was found to have been using abusive and/or insulting language or displayed a failure to leave the field after being sent off. The Netherlands international could potentially have a game added to his automatic one-match suspension for the red card.
"Virgil Van Dijk has been charged with a breach of FA Rule E3.1 following Liverpool's Premier League game against Newcastle United on Sunday, 27 August," read a statement from the FA.
"It's alleged that the defender acted in an improper manner and/or used abusive and/or insulting words towards a match official after being sent off in the 29th minute.
"Virgil Van Dijk has until Friday, 1 September to provide a response to this charge."
Sources earlier told ESPN that the FA would study Brooks' report of the incident before deciding on possible further action.