The 34-year-old spent the past six seasons with the Texas Rangers and hit .222 this year while setting career bests with 18 homers and 65 RBI in 113 games. His .757 OPS was second among AL catchers.
He had a $2.25 million salary, and the Rangers declined a $4.5 million option that had a $100,000 buyout.
Houston used four catchers this year: Max Stassi (65 starts), Brian McCann (55), Martin Maldonado (34) and Tim Federowicz (eight). McCann, Maldonado and Federowicz became free agents after the season, and McCann left to return to his home-state Atlanta Braves.