Luis Diaz's deflected strike cancelled out Son Heung-Min's opener with just over 15 minutes remaining, but despite an attacking onslaught late on, Jurgen Klopp's side couldn't find a desperately sought winner.
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The result takes Liverpool level on points with Manchester City and above them on goal difference at the top of the Premier League but City now have a game in hand, at home to Newcastle United on Sunday.
While not the victory they at one stage were on course for, the draw provides a useful point for Tottenham in their quest for a top-four place and a spot in next season's Champions League. Spurs remain fifth, now just a point behind Arsenal, who have a game in hand, ahead of Thursday's eagerly anticipated North London Derby at Tottenham Hotspur Stadium.
It was only the second time in 15 league matches that Liverpool have not taken all three points -- the other occasion being a draw against City last month -- and the consequences could be severe for Juergen Klopp's men.
With the margin of error tiny, City now look strong favourites to retain their crown.
"It is incredibly difficult to play against an opponent with world-class players and a world-class manager when they have had a week to prepare and we play every three days," Klopp, whose side reached the Champions League final on Tuesday, said.
"The dressing room is not flying, come on, but there are other games to play. We just have to keep going."
In the end a draw was a disappointing outcome for both clubs in their respective ambitions, Liverpool's to reclaim the title and Tottenham's to finish in the top four.
"It is a big point, but gutted we didn't make it at the end," Son, who is now only two goals behind Mohamed Salah in the race for the Premier League Golden Boot, said.
Liverpool dominated possession but Tottenham dug deep defensively and rode their luck at times.
Tottenham, who have emerged unbeaten from their games against Liverpool and City this season, were always a menace on the counter-attack and they took the lead in clinical style.
Kane did superbly to control a high ball and then played in Sessegnon on the right channel and his cross was tapped in by Son for his 20th goal of the season.
Tottenham looked capable of holding on and moving into fourth spot until Diaz cut in from the left in the 74th minute and his shot took a wicked deflection to beat Hugo Lloris.
Liverpool laid siege to Tottenham's goal after that but the late goal they so often find refused to arrive.
Information from Reuters was used in this report.