Arsenal, who had won their last five league games, had largely dominated the first half, but the game tipped decisively early in a frenetic second half as Liverpool extended their own relentless winning run.
The breakthrough came just minutes after a misplaced backpass had almost gifted Arsenal a goal, when Portuguese Diogo Jota got ahead of the London side's defence on 54 minutes to beat goalkeeper Aaron Ramsdale at his near post.
The result was effectively sewn up eight minutes later by Roberto Firmino who squeezed the ball under the Arsenal goalkeeper again after his side had twice failed to clear the ball from their own box.
With 69 points, Liverpool trail Manchester City (70) with both teams now having played 29 league games. The two sides are set to play each other on April 10.
"I'm very excited about [the title race] and the team and the situation we are in, but that does not change everything. We just need to keep going," Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp said. "I saw a hard-working team in the first half and in the second half we enjoyed it more and that was when we really stepped up.
"We really want to enjoy the situation we are in by winning football matches. It's tough. We keep the right mindset for it."
Arsenal remain in fourth place despite the loss, keeping the Champions League qualification destiny in their hands.
"I don't think the result reflects the performance, but in the box they had the decisive moments," Arteta said. "They put the ball in the net twice. "[The top two] have set other standards again this season. To cope with that, I have to congratulate the team, but we're here to win football matches and today we didn't do it."