Marquez was placed on the 15-day injured list Friday with right elbow inflammation. He does not have a date yet for the surgery.
Rockies starter Antonio Senzatela, who could take Marquez's spot in the rotation, is back with the club after a run with Triple-A Albuquerque.
"I feel so bad for him," Senzatela told the Denver Post Tuesday, referring to Marquez. "I'm so excited to be back with the Rockies and then I find out about this. It's really hard. But he's tough, he'll be back."
On Thursday, Marquez tried to return from a two-week stint on the IL because of right forearm inflammation, but he exited that outing against the Cleveland Guardians in the fourth inning.
Marquez, 28, was 2-2 with a 4.95 ERA in four starts this season, striking out 17 with three walks in 20 innings.
The former All-Star is 65-56 with a 4.41 ERA in 176 career games (173 starts) since making his debut with Colorado in 2016.
Information from Reuters contributed to this report.