Texas made the deal on Friday, when catcher Isiah Kiner-Falefa was placed on the 10-day injured list with a sprained right middle finger.
Federowicz was with Triple-A Columbus before the trade, and assigned to Triple-A Nashville before the Rangers selected his contract from their top affiliate. He will be with Texas on Friday night for the opener of a four-game series against Oakland.
The Rangers made room on their 40-man roster by transferring left-handed pitcher Taylor Hearn (left elbow tightness) from the 10-day injured list to the 60-day list.
Kiner-Falefa exited Thursday night's game against Baltimore after seven innings with the finger injury.