The move is retroactive to May 30.
The Red Sox recalled first baseman Sam Travis and left-hander Bobby Poyner from Triple-A Pawtucket to fill the roster spots of Pedroia and Mookie Betts, who was placed on the DL on Friday.
Pedroia returned to the Red Sox lineup last weekend for the first time since undergoing a cartilage restoration procedure on his left knee in October.
"He wasn't able to bounce back yesterday, and I think it's the smart thing to do," Red Sox manager Alex Cora said. "I know he's a little frustrated, but it is what it is. It was major surgery."
Cora said he hopes Pedroia won't need to stay on the DL beyond the 10 days. He will fly back to Boston on Sunday for treatment Monday and will likely have to go see a doctor for evaluation in New York early next week.
"It's tough, but hopefully he comes back sooner rather than later and he'll get back out there," Cora said. "Obviously, we have our goals to play in October. We want him to continue performing at a high level, and I think it's very important for him to stay away from it now, get him ready, and he'll be back soon."
A four-time All-Star and 2008 MVP, Pedroia has one hit in 11 at-bats in the three games he has played this season.
Travis, 24, hit .220 with four home runs in 34 games for Pawtucket, making 25 starts at first base and five in left field.
Poyner, 25, began the season with Boston and allowed two runs on 12 hits over 9 2/3 innings of nine relief appearances. He had a 3.18 ERA in 10 minor league appearances while holding opponents to a .179 batting average.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.