Murphy was in the starting lineup at first base and batting third.
The 34-year-old fractured his left index finger diving for a grounder in the second game of the season. He was placed on the IL on April 1 and missed 20 games. He is 1-for-10 with one run scored in two games.
Murphy's fractured finger was the beginning of several injuries for the Rockies. Infielder Ryan McMahon (sprained left elbow) missed 10 games, outfielder David Dahl (core injury) was out for eight and catcher Chris Iannetta (right lat strain) has been out for nine.
Pitcher Tyler Anderson missed a couple of starts with left knee inflammation before being recalled Monday and ace left-hander Kyle Freeland is on the injured list with a blister on his pitching hand. Relievers Jake McGee (left knee sprain) and Chris Rusin (back strain) also are out.
Murphy's return gives Colorado a nearly healthy offensive lineup.
"Getting him back is something we're excited about," manager Bud Black said. "It seems like a long time even though it's been just 20-plus games. It's good to have him back. He means a lot to the team when he's there because of how he plays and conducts his at-bats. There's some sense that his at-bats will rub off on everyone else.
"He is proven to be a very good offensive player; it should help to take some pressure off the other guys."
The Rockies signed Murphy to a two-year, $24 million contract in the offseason after he spent two-plus seasons with the Nationals. He helped the New York Mets reach the World Series in 2015 and signed with Washington that offseason.
The Nationals dealt him last season to the Chicago Cubs and he helped them reach the NL wild-card game against Colorado.
"He is a professional hitter so you have to make your pitches," Nationals manager Dave Martinez said. "He uses the whole field."
The Rockies optioned right-handed pitcher Jeff Hoffman to Triple-A Albuquerque.