Jansen strained his right hamstring running the bases during Sunday's 6-3 loss to Houston.
"I don't want to speculate, but for sure he wasn't going to be able to probably catch in the next few days," manager Charlie Montoyo said. "So of course we don't want to go with one catcher, so that's one of the reasons for the move."
Adams made his major league debut in Tuesday night's 6-1 loss to the White Sox, going 1 for 3 with a fifth-inning double that went off the wall in center. He also made a couple nice defensive plays.
The 24-year-old Adams, a third-round pick in the 2017 amateur draft, hit .250 with six homers in 19 games this year at Buffalo.
"Riley Adams did an outstanding job behind the plate,'' Montoyo said. ``And you saw it in the seventh inning when we were in trouble, he was blocking balls and stuff. It's not that easy for a rookie and he deserves a lot of credit.''
Montoyo also said George Springer made the trip to Chicago, and the plan was to have him hit on the field and track balls before the matchup with the White Sox.
Springer signed a team-record $150 million, six-year deal with Toronto this offseason, but the All-Star outfielder has appeared in just four games because of injuries. He was placed on the IL last month after aggravating his strained right quadriceps.