The team announced the move without comment on the legal situation.
Police and court records show Maualuga was arrested after an early-morning incident at a downtown Miami nightclub, allegedly involving a dispute over a bar bill. It was unclear if Maualuga had retained an attorney.
His overnight arrest was first reported by Pro Football Talk.
The Dolphins said they were promoting running back De'Veon Smith from the practice squad to take Maualuga's roster spot.
Miami signed Maualuga, 30, to a one-year deal during training camp in August after he played eight years for the Bengals, including two seasons with current Dolphins defensive coordinator Matt Burke.
Maualuga had 23 tackles for the Dolphins this season in six games, four of them being starts.
Maualuga's arrest is another chapter in a crazy season for Miami that also included former offensive line coach Chris Foerster resigning following a video surfacing of him snorting a white, powdery substance and Maualuga's fellow linebacker Lawrence Timmons going AWOL before Miami's Week 2 game against the Los Angeles Chargers.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.