The Indiana Gaming Commission said Jones was arrested for disorderly conduct, public intoxication, intimidation and resisting arrest at the casino, which is located about 25 miles southwest of Cincinnati.
The commission said its agents were called to the casino "to investigate a patron for possible cheating at a table game" and that Jones "immediately became verbally combative and disorderly with agents and casino staff."
The 35-year-old Jones was booked into the Dearborn County Law Enforcement Center in nearby Lawrenceburg at 3:10 a.m. ET.
Jones, a veteran of 14 NFL seasons, appeared in seven games for the Broncos last season, making two starts, and had an interception, three passes defensed and nine tackles. He also returned 10 punts and four kickoffs for Denver.
Prior to joining the Broncos, Jones spent eight seasons with the Cincinnati Bengals. He was arrested in January 2017 for allegedly pushing a security guard and failing to comply with law enforcement.
A video from the back of a cop car showed Jones going on a tirade against the arresting officer and telling him "I hope you die tomorrow." The NFL suspended Jones for the 2018 season opener after the incident.
He was charged with misdemeanor assault, disorderly conduct and obstructing official business, along with a felony charge of harassment with a bodily substance for spitting on the hand of a nurse while being booked.
The prosecutor declined to pursue the felony charge, and all other charges were dropped except obstructing official business, to which Jones pleaded guilty.
Jones, who joined the Bengals in 2010, turned his career around in Cincinnati after it almost ended when he was suspended for the entire 2007 season after an incident in a Las Vegas nightclub that resulted in a man being paralyzed. Jones was later ordered to pay $12 million in damages to the victim.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.