Terms of Gipson's deal with the Texans were not disclosed.
Gipson, 28, was released by the Jacksonville Jaguars on March 8 as part of the team's effort to create salary-cap space. He started all 48 games since joining the team and had six interceptions and 16 pass breakups.
The veteran safety had two years remaining on the five-year, $36 million contract he signed in March 2016. He was scheduled to make $7.25 million in 2019.
Overall, Gipson has 20 interceptions and 39 pass breakups in seven seasons. He played four years in Cleveland after joining the Browns as an undrafted free agent in 2012.
Gipson made the Pro Bowl in 2014 after he intercepted a career-high six passes and returned one for a touchdown.
In his first season with the Jaguars, Gipson had just one interception and was not happy with his role. He was critical of defensive coordinator Todd Wash, saying he felt misused playing as a single-high safety, even though the Jaguars signed him with the intention of doing that.
However, he and Wash met during the 2017 offseason and cleared the air. Gipson played well in 2017, finishing with four interceptions and seven pass breakups, and coach Doug Marrone voiced his displeasure about Gipson not being named to the Pro Bowl.
ESPN's Michael DiRocco contributed to this report.